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Capsule Shigru

Latin Name: Moringa Oleifera Lam.
Family: Moringaceae
Common Name: Sajana, sobhanjan


English name: horse radish; drum stick

Habitat: Abundantly found in plains, forests and hills. Tribal peoples of Orissa planted this plant in their backyards. Native to India, Arabia, and possibly Africa and the East Indies; widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical Africa, tropical America, Sri Lanka, India, Mexico, Malabar, Malaysia and the Philippine Islands

Macroscopic identification: Short, slender, deciduous, perennial tree, to about 10 m tall; rather slender with drooping branches; branches and stems brittle, with corky bark; leaves feathery, pale green, compound, tripinnate, 3060 cm long, with many small leaflets, 1.32 cm long, 0.60.3 cm wide, lateral ones somewhat elliptic, terminal one obovate and slightly larger than the lateral ones; flowers fragrant, white or creamy-white, 2.5 cm in diameter, borne in sprays, with 5 at the top of the flower; stamens yellow; pods pendulous, brown, triangular, splitting lengthwise into 3 parts when dry, 30120 cm long, 1.8 cm wide, containing about 20 seeds embedded in the pith, pod tapering at both ends, 9-ribbed; seeds dark brown, with 3 papery wings.

Parts used: Root, Bark, Gum, Leaf and Stem

Pharmacological action: antispasmodics, stimulant, expectorant and diuretic. Fresh root is acrid and vesicant. Bark is emmanogogue and abortificant. Plat is cardiac and circulatory tonic and stimulant.

Action and uses in Ayurveda: it is used in rajokricch, sukrkseya, asthijwara, vaman

Indications: it is used in hiccoughs, asthma, gout, lumbago, rheumatism, enlarged spleen or liver, internal and deep-seated inflammations, calculous affections, rheumatism, epilepsy, hysteria, intestinal spasms, as an aphrodisiacs and antihelmentic. It is used in enlargement of the spleen and formation of tuberculoses glands of the neck, to destroy tumors and to heal ulcers. Flowers are traditionally used as a tonic, diuretic, and abortificant.

Photochemical: Per 100 g, the pod is reported to contain 86.9 g H2O, 2.5 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 8.5 g total carbohydrate, 4.8 g fiber, 2.0 g ash, 30 mg Ca, 110 mg P, 5.3 mg Fe, 184 IU Vit A, 0.2 mg niacin, and 120 mg ascorbic acid, 310 m g Cu, 1.8 m g I.

Leaves contain 7.5 g H2O, 6.7 g protein, 1.7 g fat, 14.3 g total carbohydrate, 0.9 g fiber, 2.3 g ash, 440 mg Ca, 70 mg P, 7 mg Fe, 110 m g Cu, 5.1 m g I, 11,300 IU vit. A, 120 m g Vit B, 0.8 mg nicotinic acid, 220 mg ascorbic acid, and 7.4 mg tocopherol per 100 g. Estrogenic substances, including the anti-tumor compound, b -sitosterol, and a pectinesterase are also reported. Leaf amino acids include 6.0 g arginine/16 g N, 2.1 histidine, 4.3 lysine, 1.9 tryptophane, 6.4 phenylalanine, 2.0 methionine, 4.9 threonine, 9.3 lucine, 6.3 isoleucine, and 7.1 valine.

Pod amino acids include 3.6 g arginine/16 g N, 1.1 g histidine, 1.5 g lysine, 0.8 g tryptophane, 4.3 g phenylalanine, 1.4 g methionine, 3.9 g threonine, 6.5 g leucine, 4.4 g isoleucine, and 5.4 valine.

Seed kernel (7074% of seed) contains 4.08 H2O, 38.4 g crude protein, 34.7% fatty oil, 16.4 g N free extract, 3.5 g fiber, and 3.2 g ash.

The seed oil contains 9.3% palmitic, 7.4% stearic, 8.6% behenic, and 65.7% oleic acids among the fatty acids. Myristic and lignoceric acids have also been reported. The cake left after oil extraction contains 58.9% crude protein, 0.4% Cao, 1.1% P2O5 and 0.8% K2O. Pterygospermin, a bactericidal and fungicidal compound, isolated from Moringa has an LD50 subcutaneously injected in mice and rats of 350-to 400-mg/kg-body weight.

Root-bark yields two alkaloids: moringine and moringinine. Moringinine acts as cardiac stimulant, produces rise of blood-pressure, acts on sympathetic nerve-endings as well as smooth muscles all over the body, and depresses the sympathetic motor fibers of vessels in large dose

Properties and action:
Rasa: katu, tikta
Guna: laghu, ruksha, tiksna
Virya: usna
Vipaka: katu
Karma: jwaraghna, vathara, medohara, krimihara, brimhana, chakshushya, sirovirechak.

Preparations: powder, extract, oil

Therapeutic classification index:

  • Central nervous system: in hysteria grind together the root and leaves of Moringa Oleifera to make a paste. Smear same quantity of this paste on the whole body. In India, juice from leaves is believed to have a stabilizing effect on blood pressure and is used to treat anxiety. In high doses root can paralyze the vagus nerve
  • Cardiovascular system: in high blood pressure aqueous extract from stem bark were shown to increase the rate of heart contractions at low concentrations and decrease the rate at high concentrations, with the effect of lowering blood pressure. Moringinine, from root bark, acts on the sympathetic nervous system and acts as a cardiac stimulant, relaxes bronchioles (bronchial tube inflammation) and inhibits involuntary intestinal tract movement.
  • Digestive system: in abdominal discomfort mix leaves with honey and drink coconut milk 2 or 3 times a day. Leaves are used as a remedy for diarrhea, dysentery and colitis (inflammation of the colon).
  • Skin: it is used in the treatment of boils.
  • Nutrition and metabolism: leaf juice is believed to control glucose levels in cases of diabetes. Moringa leaf extract has been shown to be effective in lowering blood sugar levels within a space of 3 hours, albeit less effectively than the standard hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide. Effects increased with larger doses It was reported that Malaysians sometimes applied a leaf poultice to the abdomen to expel intestinal worms
  • Ear nose throat: In India, leaves are used to treat fevers, bronchitis, eye and ear infections, scurvy and catarrh (inflammation of the mucus membrane)
  • Genito-urinary system: Eating leaves is recommended in cases of gonorrhea on account of the diuretic action
  • Eye: Extract juice from the leaves of Moringa Oleifera and instill in eyes in cases of conjunctivitis.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF LEAVES AND PODS
Analysis of Moringa pods, fresh (raw) leaves and dried leaf powder has shown them to contain the following per 100 grams of edible portion.

Pods

Leaves

Leaf Powder

Moisture (%)

86.9

75.0

7.5

Calories

26.0

92.0

205.0

Protein (g)

2.5

6.7

27.1

Fat (g)

0.1

1.7

2.3

Carbohydrate (g)

3.7

13.4

38.2

Fiber (g)

4.8

0.9

19.2

Minerals (g)

2.0

2.3

-

Ca (mg)

30.0

440.0

2,003.0

Mg (mg)

24.0

24.0

368.0

P (mg)

110.0

70.0

204.0

K (mg)

259.0

259.0

1,324.0

Cu (mg)

3.1

1.1

0.6

Fe (mg)

5.3

7

28.2

S (mg)

137.0

137.0

870.0

Oxalic acid (mg)

10.0

101.0

0.0

Vitamin A - B carotene (mg)

0.1

6.8

16.3

Vitamin B -choline (mg)

423.0

423.0

-

Vitamin B1 -thiamin (mg)

0.05

0.21

2.6

Vitamin B2 -riboflavin (mg)

0.07

0.05

20.5

Vitamin B3 -nicotinic acid (mg)

0.2

0.8

8.2

Vitamin C -ascorbic acid (mg)

120

220.0

17.3

Vitamin E -tocopherol acetate (mg)

-

-

113.0

Arginine (g/16g N)

3.6

6.0

0.0

Histidine (g/16g N)

1.1

2.1

0.0

Lysine (g/16g N)

1.5

4.3

0.0

Tryptophan (g/16g N)

0.8

1.9

0.0

Phenylanaline (g/16g N)

4.3

6.4

0.0

Methionine (g/16g N)

1.4

2.0

0.0

Threonine (g/16g N)

3.9

4.9

0.0

Leucine (g/16g N)

6.5

9.3

0.0

Isoleucine (g/16g N)

4.4

6.3

0.0

Valine (g/16g N)

5.4

7.1

0.0

Use of Moringa Oleifera in blindness:
Though there are many causes of blindness, Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired dark adaptation and night blindness. Vitamin A deficiency is a big problem in many countries where Vitamin A is not available in sufficient amounts in the staple foods. In Guatemala, sugar is fortified with Vitamin A, and in Asia, a variety of rice has been fortified with the vitamin in an effort to eradicate the effects of Vitamin A deficiency. In West Africa, CWS hopes to eradicate Vitamin A deficiency through promotion of the edible leaves, seeds, and pods of the Moringa tree. Vitamin A deficiency affects both adults and children, though; it can be more serious in growing children. It can cause blindness and leave children vulnerable to disease because of weakened immune systems. Moringa leaves and pods contain a high proportion of Vitamin A. Eating Moringa leaves, pods, and leaf powder can help to prevent night blindness and eye problems in children

Broad spectrum anti microbial activity of Shigru
An in vitro study showed that an aqueous extract made from seeds is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escheridia coli. This study showed the seed extract to be equally effective as Neomycin against S. aureus. Similar results were obtained with aqueous extracts from the roots. Fresh leaf juice has showed some positive inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and an extract from leaves was found to be effective at inhibiting the growth of the fungi Basidiobolus haptosporus and B.ranarum. The in vitro anti-fungal effects of the extract compared favorably the with the effects of some conventional drugs used to treat zygomycotic infections. Anthonine, also found in root bark, is highly toxic to the cholera bacterium. Spirochin, found in the roots, is anti-gram+ bacteria, analgesic, and antipyretic, affects the circulatory system (by raising or lowering heart beat, depending on dose), and affects the nervous system. In high doses root can paralyze the vagus nerve. Also found in roots and seeds, benzylisothiocyanate (which works against fungi and bacteria) may be even better than medicinally utilized benzylisothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates.

Dose: powder-1-3 gms Fresh juice-10-20 ml
Capsule Shigru contains pure and concentrated Shigru.

Dosage: one capsule twice a day, after meals.
Package size: 60 capsules.

References:

  1. Dr.KM Nadkarni, The Indian Materia Medica, Vol.I, pg 811
  2. Prof P.V Sharma, Dravya Guna Vigyana, Vol II, pg 111
  3. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India, Part I, Vol.II, pg 155
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