Latin name: Medicago sativa
Common name: Willayati ghas, Lasun ghas
English name: Lucerne, Guinea grass
Habitat: this tree grows plentifully
in Konkan, Malabar and Canara district of Western
Macroscopic identification: An evergreen
tree with thin branches, elliptical leaves,
ovoid fruit violet in color.
Parts used: concrete oil, fruits, bark,
young leaves, and seeds
Pharmacological action: Fruit is cholagogue,
cooling, demulcent, emollient and anti scorbutic.
Bark and leaves are astringent. Oil is emollient
Action and uses in Ayurveda: kaphvatshamak,
rochan, hridya, twakroghara, jwaraghna.
Photochemical: The Garcinia fruit is
a rich source of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the
active agent that aids in weight loss by inhibiting
fat production and suppressing appetite. Garcinia
contains citrine, an extract that is 50-60%
HCA, which inhibits an enzyme that helps the
body synthesize fat for storage in adipose tissue.
Properties and action:
Guna: laghu, ruksha
Preparations: oil from seeds, syrup of
juice, decoction of bark, amsel (acid pulp of
fruit, without seed).
- Digestive system: it is a specific
remedy for diarrhea and dysentery.
- Respiratory system: it is useful
in phthisis pulmonalis and skin diseases
Garcinia- the anti-obesity
The Garcinia fruit is a rich source of hydroxycitric
acid (HCA), the active agent that aids in weight
loss by inhibiting fat production and suppressing
Garcinia contains citrine, an extract that is
50-60% HCA, which inhibits an enzyme that helps
the body synthesize fat for storage in adipose
tissue. HCA promotes energy, inhibits lipogenesis,
lowers the production of cholesterol and fatty
acids, increases the production of glycogen
in the liver, suppresses appetite, and increases
the body's production of heat by activating
the process of thermo genesis.
Normally, the body converts the carbohydrates
from meals and snacks that cannot be used immediately
for energy into glycogen. Glycogen is the storage
form of carbohydrates, deposited in muscles
and the liver.
When the glycogen stores are reasonably full,
additional carbohydrates are then converted
into body fat. Hydroxycitric acid blocks up
to 70% of the conversion of carbohydrates into
fat, thus helping to prevent added fat storage
on the body. Thus, carbohydrates are forced
to be accommodated as more glycogen in the liver.
This added glycogen load in the liver stimulates
a longer lasting neuro-signal from the liver
to the brain, of satisfaction, thus helping
to suppress appetite longer.
Chemistry and biochemistry
of (-)-hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia
J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jan 2; 50(1): 10-22
Jena BS, Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah
Human Resource Development, Central Food Technological
Research Institute, Mysore 570 013, India.
(-)-Hydroxycitric acid [(-)-HCA] is the principal
acid of fruit rinds of Garcinia cambogia, Garcinia
indica, and Garcinia atroviridis. (-)-HCA was
shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate
lyase (EC 220.127.116.11), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial
cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA:
citrate + ATP + CoA --> acetyl-CoA + ADP + P(i)
+ oxaloacetate. The inhibition of this reaction
limits the availability of acetyl-CoA units
required for fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis
during a lipogenic diet, that is, a diet high
in carbohydrates. Extensive animal studies indicated
that (-)-HCA suppresses the fatty acid synthesis,
lipogenesis, food intake, and induced weight
loss. In vitro studies revealed the inhibitions
of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis from
various precursors. . HCA; and its biochemistry,
which includes inhibition of the citrate cleavage
enzyme, effects on fatty acid synthesis and
lipogenesis, effects on ketogenesis, other biological
effects, possible modes of action on the reduction
of food intake, promotion of glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis,
and lipid oxidation, (-)-HCA as weight-controlling
Inhibition of citrate
lyase may aid aerobic endurance.
Owing to a substantial increase in glucose uptake
by working muscle, glucose homeostasis during
sustained aerobic exercise requires a severalfold
increase in hepatic glucose output. As exercise
continues and liver glycogen declines, an increasing
proportion of this elevated glucose output must
be provided by gluconeogenesis. Increased gluconeogenic
efficiency in trained individuals is a key adaptation
promoting increased endurance, since failure
of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with
muscle uptake rapidly leads to hypoglycaemia
and exhaustion. Pre-administration of (-)-hydroxycitrate,
a potent inhibitor of citrate lyase found in
fruits of the genus Garcinia, may aid endurance
during post-absorptive aerobic exercise by promoting
gluconeogenesis. Carnitine and bioactive chromium
may potentiate this benefit. The utility of
this technique may be greatest in exercise regimens
designed to promote weight loss.
Dose: powder - 1-2 gms
Capsule Garcinia contains pure and concentrated
Dosage :one capsule twice a day, before meals.
Package size: 60 capsules.
- Dr.KM Nadkarni, The Indian Materia Medica,
Vol.I, pg 566
- Prof P.V Sharma, Dravya Guna Vigyana, Vol
II, pg 337